In any architectural design, the roof serves as a primary defense line against the elements, particularly precipitation like rain and snow. One of the most critical aspects of a roof’s design is its valleys – a component that not only contributes to the overall aesthetic but also plays a vital role in a roof’s functionality.
Roof valleys are the V-shaped channels found on the point where two sloping roof sections intersect. In simpler terms, they’re the ‘troughs’ or ‘gutters’ that you see where different parts of the roof meet. They can occur in various types of roofing configurations, but they are most common in roofs that are not simple rectangles or squares, including L-shaped or complex, multi-gabled roofs.
The primary purpose of a roof valley is to channel water, directing rainwater and melting snow safely off the roof and into the gutter system.
Given their shape and positioning, valleys often bear the brunt of water runoff during heavy rain or snowfall. They are therefore designed to handle a larger volume of water than other areas of the roof.
There are three main types of roof valleys: open, closed, and woven.
Open Valleys: These are characterized by a visible channel running along the valley’s length, usually protected by a strip of metal. Open valleys tend to be more durable and offer efficient water drainage, making them suitable for areas with heavy rain or snowfall.
Closed Valleys: In closed valley configurations, shingles are laid across the valley, entirely covering it. Although aesthetically pleasing, closed valleys may not handle water runoff as efficiently as open valleys.
Woven Valleys: These are a type of closed valley where the shingles from both sides of the roof overlap along the valley line. Woven valleys are often used with three-tab shingles and are less common with architectural or laminate shingles due to their thickness.
Due to the large volumes of water that roof valleys manage, they are susceptible to wear and tear and potential damage. It’s not uncommon for debris like leaves, twigs, or even snow and ice to accumulate in the valleys, leading to blockages. These blockages can prevent water from draining properly, causing it to seep under the shingles and potentially lead to leaks, mold, and structural damage over time.
Regular roof maintenance should therefore include a thorough inspection and cleaning of roof valleys. Any signs of wear or damage, such as rusted metal, cracked or missing shingles, or granule loss, should be addressed promptly to prevent minor issues from becoming major problems.
In other words, roof valleys are a crucial part of your roofing system. They play a vital role in protecting your home from water damage and contribute to the roof’s aesthetic appeal.
Proper understanding and regular maintenance of roof valleys can significantly extend the life of your roof and ensure it continues to protect your building efficiently.
We offer no-obligation free roof valley inspections for both residential and commercial properties.
Siding is one of the most overlooked aspects of home improvement. It’s such a small detail, but it can significantly impact your house’s overall appearance and value. Whether you’re looking to add siding to the outside of an existing structure or a new building, there are many factors that you will have to consider when choosing which type of siding will look best on your home.
This article will cover some common types of siding and how they might appeal to different homeowners.
Choosing the correct type of siding can make a big difference in your home’s appearance and value. If you’re looking to make a significant impact on the appearance of your home, consider choosing a siding that will complement the style of your house.
In addition to considering the look and feel of the siding, other factors should be considered when choosing which type of material is right for your house. For example: how much will it cost?
Considering the siding budget is one of the first questions people ask when deciding which type of siding they want installed in their homes. While some types may be more expensive than others (wood vs. vinyl), it’s essential also to consider how much maintenance and repairs will cost over time, as well as any potential replacements down the road.
Wood siding is a traditional choice. It’s often made of redwood or cedar, which can be expensive. This type of material has a warm, natural aesthetic that suits some architectural styles; however, if your home is located in a region of the country where extreme weather is expected (such as the Pacific Northwest), this option may not be ideal because it can easily break and crack when exposed to heavy winds.
If you live in a frigid climate, wood siding is the best choice for your home. Wood is the most expensive type of siding and the most maintenance-intensive. But if you’re looking for something with that unforgettable traditional look, wood may be worth it. Wood gives your house a warm and welcoming look that will last for years—even decades!
Vinyl siding is the most popular choice for new homes since it’s durable and low maintenance. Vinyl can be installed over pre-existing siding, which means you’ll save on labor costs. Vinyl also is a cost-effective choice because it is one of the cheapest siding options to purchase.
One type of siding that is gaining popularity is fiber cement, also called “composite” or “pultruded.” It’s composed of cement and cellulose fibers, which makes it very durable. The finished product looks like real wood siding but doesn’t rot, warp or crack like natural wood.
Fiber cement has been around for years but has recently become popular with homeowners because it lasts so long—the typical lifespan is 40 years! It’s also fire resistant and can be painted to match your house, making it an attractive option if you’re hoping to find something that will blend in with the rest of your home’s look while still being resilient enough to withstand harsh weather conditions year after year without needing any repairs or replacements (like some other types of siding).
While fiber cement is more expensive than other types of siding options on this list, you’ll get what you pay for: a quality product that won’t need replacement anytime soon!
Aluminum is a lightweight, durable and attractive choice for siding on your home. It’s also easy to install, so you won’t have to call in a contractor if you don’t want to. Aluminum makes sense if you live in an area prone to flooding or high winds, as these conditions do not easily damage it. Aluminum siding can be ordered with different textures and colors that match any home style.
Aluminum siding will last longer than other materials if your home sits on a coastline or near saltwater; however, it’s also more susceptible to corrosion over time due to salt buildup on its surface. This can lead to premature wear on the metal material itself as well as additional maintenance costs such as repainting every few years due to discoloration caused by oxidation caused by exposure to sun rays–something that won’t happen with other types like stucco or vinyl since they’re not made from metals like aluminum but instead has their unique compositions.
Stucco is another popular exterior siding option. Stucco is a mixed combination of cement, sand, and water that hardens over time to create a protective layer on your home. It’s often used in areas prone to high winds or hurricanes because it can withstand hurricane-force winds without damage.
Stucco is not recommended for homes located in areas with extreme temperature changes as it tends to crack when exposed to temperature changes too quickly.
This is a significant consideration if you plan to sell your home soon. As you probably know, the condition of the siding on the house can have a substantial impact on its resale value. You’ll want to ensure that whatever style of siding you choose will hold up well over time and maintain its appearance.
For example, vinyl siding is one of the least expensive options on the market today. However, it comes with some challenges: It tends to fade after only a few years in direct sunlight; it’s also more prone than other materials to cracking and splitting, and repairs can be tricky if necessary. On top of that, vinyl isn’t as durable as stucco or fiber cement—meaning that over time, you may need more frequent replacements than other homeowners who opted for different materials when building their homes.
Siding is an extremely important investment in your home and can make a huge difference in your home’s appearance. If you’re considering replacing your siding, consider the type of siding most appropriate for your style and the style of your home.
Ideally, it is always best to choose a type of siding that will last as long as possible while still looking good. Which factors are the most important to you: cost or resale value? Maintenance costs? Durability? These are all questions you may need to ask yourself as you navigate the new siding process.
Cedar shake roofing is an extremely popular choice for homeowners who want to add beauty and character to their homes. Cedar is an elegant material used on roofs for centuries, yet it still looks modern and stylish today. Whether looking for a one-story ranch house or a multi-level Victorian, cedar shake roofing can be installed almost anywhere.
This article will explain what homes benefit most from this type of roof, how long they last, how much they cost, whether they come with warranties or maintenance requirements, why they are considered environmentally friendly—and more! So let’s get started.
Cedar shake roofing is a natural product. It’s made with cedar shakes, which are sawn from the logs of the Western Red Cedar tree. Because it’s a renewable resource, you can feel good about choosing this option for your home. The wood looks great on your roof and will last many years!
Cedar Shake Roofing is a wise investment that can help you save on heating, cooling, and storm damage costs. It’s also a very attractive addition to your home that can increase its value.
Below are some of the benefits you’ll experience when you have your roof replaced with cedar shake:
The grades of cedar shake roofing are based on the thickness of the cedar shake. The thicker the shakes, the higher quality they are. Cedar Shake Roofing comes in three grades:
You can install cedar shakes on almost any roof in any weather. You can also install them in most climates or even to keep your home cool in summer or warm in winter. Cedar shakes are a fantastic product that will last a lifetime with proper care and maintenance. They’re incredibly durable and can withstand anything from rainstorms to fierce winds without cracking or peeling away from your home’s structure.
Because cedar shake shingles come in one size only—15 inches wide by 48 inches long—you won’t have to worry about sizing according to your roof’s pitch (slope), which means there’s no such thing as “too steep” when it comes time to choose this type of shingle material. However, if your pitch is over 6:12 (6 inches rise per 12-inch run), you may need professional assistance installing these due to their weight and size requirements; otherwise, they’ll be difficult for a single person with average strength levels alone!
Cedar shakes are durable and long-lasting, but you still have to ensure they’re correctly maintained. If you don’t take care of your cedar shingle roofing material, it could lose its aesthetic appeal and become a safety hazard.
Your cedar shake roof will need repair at some point in its lifespan. For example, the shingles may need to be replaced or repaired if there’s storm damage or fire damage on your home’s exterior. You can also get small cracks in your cedar shingle roof that need repair by sealing them over with sealant so they don’t develop into more significant problems later down the line.
As with any other type of roofing, the cost of cedar shake roofing depends on various factors. The most important factors are the size and grade of the shingles and how much work needs to be done during installation.
The average cost for installation ranges from $6.50 per square foot to $13.50 per square foot. However, this can vary depending on where you live, who does your installation (a contractor or DIY), and whether or not you have a metal base sheet underneath your cedar shakes.
Most cedar shake roofing manufacturers offer a lifetime warranty on their roofs. But what does that mean, exactly? Is your entire roof covered? What won’t they honor?
Yes, cedar shake roofing must be maintained. The maintenance requirements for a cedar shake roof are similar to those of other roofing styles. The life expectancy of a cedar shake roof can be significantly extended by regularly cleaning and sealing it and treating it with fire-retardant chemicals.
A thorough cleaning is required every 3-5 years, depending on the amount of debris collected on the surface of your cedar shake shingles over time. Most roofs will require an initial cleaning after installation since they trap dust from construction activities such as sawing wood into shakes or nailing in nails used to secure them to the sheathing beneath them. While most people do not realize this at first because they think their new roof looks great right away, this initial period is prime time for dirt and debris to collect on their brand-new shingle roofs before they get sealed properly. You should use a sealant to prevent this from happening again in future years, but it won’t remove any existing material stuck onto them already. So clean them up thoroughly before applying any sealant product!
You should discuss this topic with a professional if you have concerns about whether cedar shake roofing is suitable for your home. That way, they can help you determine which grade of cedar shake best suits your needs and budget—as well as explain the installation process and advise how often maintenance will need to be performed. Cedar shakes are a massive upgrade to any house you should be proud of once accomplished.
Siding is the most important part to any house. It is what protects the interior frame and design of the house from all the weather elements. Deciding on which type of siding to invest in is essential to the future well-being of the home. It will also contribute to the decorative layout and exterior design. Although there are many siding alternatives to choose from in the market, this article covers Hardie plank siding.
This siding was developed by the James Hardie company and is considered as one of the best siding materials available. Is it the right investment for you? What are the pros and cons of this type of this type of siding? In this article, we’ll cover that discussion.
As with any quality product, you want it to be durable and reliable. With the Hardie plank siding, you are getting your money’s worth and more. The siding is composed of cement, sand and cellulose fibers, creating a unique combination that is made to last. As far as the lifespan, the siding can last up to 50 years. Of course, the siding will be able to withstand a wide array of weather conditions, including rain, snow, thunderstorms, ice, heat, humidity and more.
The design of the Hardie plank siding is also beautiful and can enhance your home’s layout just as you want. It comes with a variety of styles and colors to complement your home. Some of the Hardie plank designs also mimic wood siding products so that you can get the best of both worlds. The design of the Hardie plank also helps to seal your home perfectly. This will prevent any moisture from seeping into your home, which can lead to rotting wood, warping and unwanted repairs.
One disadvantage about traditional wood siding is that it can attract pests. However, with Hardie plank siding, you won’t have to worry about termites or carpenter ants. The boards are resistant to these pests and will make your investment well worth it. The sidings are also resistant to woodpecker damage. However, one thing that stands out above these benefits is its warranty. The James Hardie company offers reliable warranty for their products.
Hardie plank siding comes in a collection of different customizable designs and styles. Whether you want a traditional design for your home or a modernized layout, you can find exactly what you want.
Hardie plank siding is also fire resistant and isn’t combustible in any manner. Wood siding, on the other hand, can actually contribute to fueling a fire. Therefore, you can rest easy knowing that Hardie plank is completely safe and fire resistant.
If you’re looking to invest in Hardie plank siding, certified contractors are able to install your siding without any issue. The James Hardie company has trained contractors who are certified to do the work of installing the siding. This can give you the assurance that the siding will be installed by qualified installers.
Finally, maintaining the siding is also easy to do. We recommend cleaning your siding twice a year. You can clean the siding by using your garden hose and a medium nylon bristle to knock off any dirt.
While the Hardie plank siding has many pros, it does have a couple of cons. However, the pros outweigh the cons significantly, so we do recommend a final investment in Hardie plank. The upfront cost of the Hardie plank is more expensive than regular vinyl siding. However, it tends to be worth the investment because Hardie will last longer.
If you want to replace vinyl siding with Hardie plank, the installation process can be much different and take longer to install than vinyl siding. The siding itself is much heavier and can be a challenge to install on a house. This is why it is recommended to have qualified professionals like the ClearCoat Roofing company to install the Hardie siding. By doing this, you can rest assured of the installation process along with its reliable warranty.
Although maintenance is fairly low with the Hardie plank siding, you may need to repaint the siding after 15 years. However, painting it is fairly easy and can be done within a couple of days.
In the end, the pros definitely win. Although the Hardie plank siding can be a little expensive, it is worth the investment. In short, it is durable and resistant to a variety of weather elements. The siding will also last you for a long time.
Once you’re ready to have your new Hardie plank installed, remember to contact the ClearCoat Roofing company.
Siding is one of the most important parts to any house. Its purpose is to protect the home from a variety of weather elements, such as rain or snow. The siding can even serve to protect your house from the sun’s rays in those hot summer days. When you’re deciding on which type of siding you want to get for your home, you will run into a few options, including natural wood siding, metal siding and of course vinyl siding.
This type of siding is made from a durable plastic design that works as an exterior wrap or finish for your home. In this article, we’ll concentrate on the best features along with some of the cons that vinyl siding offers. It is considered to be a great alternative for protecting your home. Let’s go over some of the pros and cons so that you can make an informed decision on your investment.
Low Maintenance – One attractive feature from vinyl siding is low maintenance. In fact, because of its slick surface and material, it can be easily cleaned with a water hose. Any dirt, cobwebs and other types of debris will quickly fall off with a spray of water.
Affordable – Saving money is important when you’re building a new home or renovating an existing one. Costs can quickly add up and investing in vinyl siding can actually save you money in the end. When you compare it to other sidings like fiber cement or wood siding, you may be able to spend somewhere between 30 to 50 percent less. Why? Well, the cost of vinyl has an edge amongst its competitors because it features panels that interlock together, which makes it easier to install. Make sure that you browse different siding suppliers to find the right choice for your home.
Durability – Even though vinyl siding is much more affordable than other types of siding, it doesn’t mean that it’s composed of cheap materials. Vinyl siding is one of the most durable and reliable sidings on the market. When the siding is properly installed, it will protect your home from for many years. Some homes with vinyl have lasted with the same siding for 20 years or more. It is also perfect to keep your home insulated, which can help to keep your home comfortable.
Beautiful Designs – Vinyl siding has certainly changed a lot within the past 30 years. Nowadays, it provides both a dependable alternative to protect your home and many designs that you can choose. This will include different vinyl colors, trims and more. You’ll also find different textures and profiles that can fit the layout of any home.
Installation – While installing vinyl siding is fast and easy, make sure that you hire someone who knows what they’re doing. Since this type of siding comes in panels with interlocking features, it’s important to lock these panels securely. Any missed panel that is not locked correctly can result in an open space into your home. This open space can let in moisture within boards leading to damp wood or mold in the future. With time, these panels will begin to separate if they’re not installed properly.
Property Value – Vinyl siding has many great advantages. However, when it comes to evaluating the value of your property, it can actually do more harm than good. The market usually values other types of siding more than vinyl, such as wood or even fiber cement. If you’re concerned that vinyl could devalue your property value, it may be best to opt for another alternative.
Painting – Can you paint vinyl siding? Many experts have had different opinions when it comes to painting vinyl siding that has faded. While a fresh coat of paint may brighten up the siding’s color, it’s essential to use quality paint and experienced painters to do the job right. Vinyl can be tricky to successfully paint over. If it’s not done correctly, the paint can begin to crack within just months. Another downside to this is that the overall paint job will come out more expensive than your regular painting project.
Cracking – Quality matters greatly in vinyl siding. Because vinyl is prone to cracking and much more easily breakable than other materials, you want to invest in quality. Although most siding can last for many years, your location can affect its overall lifespan. Natural weather elements in extreme conditions can damage your vinyl. This can include prolonged exposure to sun, rain, wind and freezing temperatures. With time, your siding will begin to crack.
Fading – As with any other material, fading happens sooner or later. However, with vinyl siding, the process can happen much faster, which depends on a variety of factors. First, you have to consider the color. Darker and bolder colors tend to fade much faster compared to lighter colors. Second, your vinyl siding will fade much faster if it’s situated in a place where direct sunlight hits the home.
Hail damage to roofing happens all over the country every year, as hail storms are part of our normal life in the Midwest. It can be a painstaking process to file a claim. And if you don’t have an honest contractor in your corner, the insurance company could end up giving you a less than fair deal. That is why we have created this seven step process to help fellow readers file a hail damage claim for a roof.
Read on to learn the recommended insurance claim process for hail damage.
Good roofing contractors should offer a claim assistance program. These programs are designed to assist home/business owners through the claim process, acting as a liaison with the insurance company, protecting the best interest of the home/business owner.
Contact your local roofer of choice before you reach out to your insurance company. This will ensure you have help in your corner when it comes time to negotiate with the insurance adjusters.
Call your agent and let them know that you had a contractor out and have confirmed that there is damage on the property and you’d like to file a claim.
Insurance adjuster will call and schedule a time and date to be out at the property to assess the damages, it is imperative that you have representation at this meeting from your contractor. You want to have your contractor there who is familiar with how this process works and knows the items that need addressed at the assessment, because once the initial meeting is completed it is very hard to backtrack on missed items / damages.
Once you receive the approved scope of work for repairs from your insurance company, you and your contractor go through the line items and make sure that all the necessary materials and items are included in the approval. If there are missing components, your contractor will communicate with your adjuster to make sure you are getting everything you are entitled to as the insured.
All code items should be included, as well as similar building products should be included in their approval – this is not always the case and an experienced contractor will know how to navigate this process on your behalf.
Now that your insurance specialized contractor has successfully completed the supplemental process of the claim and you now have funds for your project from the insurance company, you can pick out roofing materials and get your project started. Asphalt shingle and metal roofing are common examples for the Indianapolis area.
Keep in mind that your checks/funds from the insurance company may have your mortgage company listed on the checks to be endorsed. This will make depositing the checks impossible without your lenders endorsement. We will handle that for you to help expedite the process and take the stress of jumping through hoops. All we need is either the blank unendorsed check, or a picture of the front and back of the unendorsed check.
Let your roofing contractor handle the project from there! An honest roofing contractor with good reviews will get the job done from this point.
Your contractor will file their certification of completion after the work is complete to your adjuster, and this will release any of the held back funds from the insurance company.
The time you have to file an insurance claim is different depending on the insurance company, however most insurance policies limit your time to file a claim to within 12-24 months of the storm.
Take pictures. Also call a contractor that you trust to take their own pictures and perform a roof inspection as well. This gives you two sets of evidence, from two separate sources. Also, never accept the insurance company’s initial settlement offer without first running it by your roofing contractor. You will want to make sure the payout is sufficient to cover the damages.
Ridge vents are installed at the peak of the roof, typically running its length. They are designed to allow air to circulate underneath the roofing so as to prevent moisture buildup. To give you a clearer idea of the role that ridge vents play in a roofing system, here are three of their biggest advantages.
In combination with wind, a ridge vent can create a ventilation system in your attic. It ensures that fresh air circulates continuously, which is critical to preventing mold and mildew from growing in areas like the attic crawl space and the underside of the eaves.
Ridge vents are typically constructed with air space, which enables proper air flow at the top of your home and below your roof. If you’re planning for a roof replacement, your roofing contractor can ensure that the ridge vent will function correctly and provide sufficient air flow.
Ultimately, ridge vents offer additional protection against some common culprits behind roofing problems. Moisture can cause extensive water damage. Without fresh air to get rid of moisture, your roof and attic will become more vulnerable to mold and rot.
Excess heat is another issue that vents can address. If air is not being drawn into and exhausted out of the roofing structure, excess heat can potentially build up in areas like the attic and lead to premature aging of the roof.
Often, home and business owners are undecided on whether to repair or replace a roof. Both options, however, are viable depending on the age and condition of your roof. In this post, we discuss when its ideal to repair or replace your roof.
Roof damages can be quite subtle, which is why you should schedule annual inspections with a reputable ClearCoat Roofing Contractor. You should also have your roof inspected immediately after any catastrophic event. Before picking out the repair or roof replacement materials, make sure you go through any HOA Roofing requirements.
Although the new roof is quite an expense, it is bound to last for decades.
Letting professionals handle your roof replacement project means putting the protection of your home into someone else’s hands. Understanding what a roof replacement entails, may help put your mind at ease. The following are some basics.
You no doubt want the highest quality materials used for your home, but you may not know what those are. Speaking with your residential roofer about the options available can help you make that decision. Some materials commonly used for home roofs include asphalt composition shingles, metal roofing, wood shakes, and slate roofing. These materials come in different colors as well, so you can match a variety of exterior home features to your roof.
One thing you don’t want to do is trust the job to someone who doesn’t know what they’re doing. Contacting a professional residential roofer will ensure the job will be done correctly and last a long time. You want a company that does what they say they’ll do, as well as exceeding your expectations. Look for a roofing company with a great reputation that hires roofing professionals and ensures they are properly trained. With all these components pulled together, your roof will get done correctly.
The cost of your residential roof replacement project will depend on the size of the job, the materials used, and the pitch of the roof. Speak with your roofer about the specifics of the job to truly understand what you’ll be expected to pay by the end. If the cost doesn’t work with your budget, you can work out a different arrangement beforehand to ensure you receive a nice roof within your price range.
Understanding a few basics of residential roof replacement can get you ready to face the project head on. Contact us today to get your roof replacement scheduled.
We offer free roofing inspections with any visit.
This System Plus Limited Warranty covers certain GAF roofing products installed on your roof (the “GAF Products”) including GAF Asphaltic Shingles, GAF Ridge Cap Shingles, GAF Starter Strip Shingles, GAF Leak Barrier Products, GAF Roof Deck Protection Products, GAF Cobra® Attic Ventilation Products, and GAF-labeled Ultimate Pipe Flashing® with EasySleeve (manufactured by Lifetime Tool® & Building Products LLC), in the unlikely event that they contain a manufacturing defect.
Note: This limited warranty does not cover low- slope membranes, Master Flow® Ventilation Products, ShingleMatchTM Roof Accessory Paint, or GAF Cornell Ventilated Nail Base Roof Insulation. Please go to gaf.com for a copy of the limited warranties covering these products.
Coverage begins when your GAF Products are installed. (If a GAF AuthorizedTM Home Builder initially registers this warranty for a newly constructed home, coverage begins when you take title to the property and you properly transfer coverage.) Coverage for all GAF Products lasts as long as the warranty for manufacturing defects for the type of shingle installed in the field of the roof. Note: If cut-up GAF Strip Shingles are used instead of the eligible GAF Ridge Cap Shingles, the warranty and non-prorated period for the cut-up strip shingles are the same as they would be if those shingles were used in the field of the roof.
Subject to the provisions below, all GAF Asphaltic Shingles other than Royal Sovereign® and Marquis WeatherMax® Shingles carry a Lifetime limited warranty (as defined below) against manufacturing defects and a non- prorated period of 50 years.
The word “Lifetime” means as long as you, the original owner(s) [or the second owner(s) if coverage was properly transferred within the first 20 years], own the property where the shingles and/or accessories are installed. The Lifetime warranty term and 50-year non-prorated period are applicable only to shingles and accessories installed on a single-family detached residence owned by individuals. For any other type of owner or building, such as a corporation, governmental entity, religious entity, condominium, or homeowner association, school, apartment building, office building, or multi-use structure, the length of the warranty is 40 years and the non-prorated period is 20 years.
Even if your GAF Products were not properly installed according to GAF’s application instructions or to standard good roofing practices, this limited warranty remains in effect. However, GAF will NOT be liable for and this warranty does NOT apply to:
Effectiveness. This limited warranty will not take effect unless all eligibility requirements have been satisfied, this warranty is registered to you, and your roofing contractor has been paid in full.
If you have any further questions about the GAF or other roof waranties, feel free to contact ClearCoat Roofing. We will be happy to answer your questions.